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Reclamation of shallow soil and laterite soil

          Shallow soil and laterite soil is the soil where pebble layers, stone layers and
                                                    laterite layers are found 50 cm. from the soil surface.

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          How to observe shallow soil and laterite soil area 
          1. Dig the soil 50 cm. and find stone pieces and pebble pieces more than 35% of soil
          2. Top soil is sandy loamy soil with stone pieces or pebble pieces.
          3. Below soil is sandy loamy soil with sandy clay. Find pebble pieces and stone
              pieces more than 50% of soil texture.

          Area where shallow soil and laterite soil are found
          Such soil are found almost every parts of Thailand expect rainy zone in the South. The total area is 6.6 million rai. Soil series which shallow soil and laterite are found are Tayang series, Maerim series, Payao series, Namchun series and Na Chaleang series.

          Problem of land utilization for agriculture
          Since the soil consists of much pebble pieces and stone pieces, an amount of soil texture is decreased. It is not good at holding water and it is hard for ploughing. Soil surface is easy to be leached and soil fertility is less. Because of area condition, it is hard to build irrigation system.

          Reclamation and management of shallow soil and laterite soil 
          Plant fast-growing plant or tree in the area where its slope is more than 12%. Varieties of plant suitable are eucalyptus, bamboo, nim, rain tree, Leguminosae, genus Cassia. The planting area is 1x1 m., 1x2 m. or 2x2 m. Plant in a hole which its size is 20x20x20 cm. Add compost 2-5 kg. with chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 100-200 g. at the bottom of the hole.
Planting grassland for rearing animals. Plant grass and bean together for example, Ruzi mixed with Verano, Ruzi mixed with Ziratro or Ginny mixed with Zirato. Before planting, add Double Superphosphate 20 kg./rai and Potassiumcloride 10 kg./rai. Planting grass and bean by scattering Ruzi seeds 1-2 kg./rai and Ziratro seeds 2-3 kg./rai.

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          After planting grass and bean 3 month, start to cut it or allow animals to nibble it. Then, leave the field 45-60 days before cutting or allowing animals to nibble it again.
Planting farm crops among bushes in area where it is not too steep and the soil surface is rather thick. Bushes planted for maintenance are horse tamarind, Mahae bean. Plant it in two rows. The plant space is 10-50 cm. and the row space is 50 cm. Cut leaves and branches of the bush to use as the mulch. Varieties of upland rice are Sewmaejan and R288. The first row is far from the bush 50 cm. The area for planting is 20x30 cm. Drop the seeds 10 seeds/hole. After upland rice grows 20-30 days, add chemical fertilizer (16-16-8) 20-25 kg./rai. In blooming period or 30 days before blooming, add chemical fertilizer (46-0-0) 5-10 kg./rai.

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          Planting pineapple  Plant it among bushes or grasses strip like vetiver grass or Ruzi. Varity selected is Pattavia. Plant it across the slope. The row space is 50 cm. and the plant space is 25-30 cm. Add chemical fertilizer (13-13-21) 400 g./plant. Divide it to add in the first time after planting 1-3 months. The second time is when the plant age is 6 months. Cut leaves covering soil to retain moisture and prevent weeds.

Planting upland rice Plant it in a row across the slope
Soil management
Fast-growingplant Plough the land across the slope when the soil moisture is suitable. Add compost at the bottom of  the hole 2-5 kg./hole. Plant Ziratro bean or Hamata bean as the mulch. Add chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 100-200 g./hole.
Grass and bean
Plough the land across the slope when the soil moisture is suitable. Add chemical fertilizer (6-46-0) 20-25 kg./rai with chemical fertilizer  (0-0-60) 10 kg./rai before planting.
Upland ricePlant bushes for soil maintenance. Cut their leaves and branches, incorporate      the soil and cover the soil with the mulch. Add chemical fertilizer (16-16-8)        20-25 kg./rai after the rice grows 20-30 days and mix chemical fertilizer (46-0-0) 5-10 kg./rai. In blooming period, plant leguminous crops rotation like blackbean and princess bean.
Plough the land across the slope. Plant bushes for soil maintenance and plant grasses strip.Cut their leaves and branches or use grass covering the soil. Incorporate leaves, branches or grasses. Add chemical fertilizer (13-13-21) 400 g./plant.
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