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Reclamation of sandy soil 

 soil is the soil which its top soil texture is sandy or loamy sand and its layer is more
 than 50 cm.

  How to observe sandy soil area 
- Sandy soil area was always left empty. Nowadays, such area is improved for
- Its top soil texture is sandy or loamy sand. its layer is more than 50 cm. Some area,
  its layer is more than 1-2 m.

  Area where sandy soil is found
Sandy soil is usually found in the Northeast. Some is found in coastal provinces and
sandy mound area.

Sandy soil management 
Sandy soil management for plantation can be divided into types of areas and plants
as the following : 

        1. Crops planting
      For sandy soil in the upland, there is a good drainage. As a result, many types of
crops could be planted.

 1.1 Upland rice sometimes farmers have to grow rice to consume thems elves.
Sandy soil farm (Ubon series) is suitable for drop-farm because rice in drop
farm could be grown in arid area. Drop seeds in a row in order to clear the
weeds easily. Appy organic fertilizer 1-2 ton/rai with chemical fertilizer
(16-16-8) 20 kg./rai. Divide it to add at least 2 times.

 1.2 Jute Apply chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 40 kg./rai or apply chemical fertilizer
(15-15-15) 20-25 kg./rai with organic fertilizer 1-3 ton/rai by scattering it
beside the rows a month after planting.
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 1.3 Peanut Apply chemical fertilizer (12-24-12) 25 kg./rai by dividing it
into 2 parts. Add the first part at the bottom of the hold and add the second
part 20 days after planting.

 1.4 Sugar-cane Apply chemical fertilizer (15-10-10) 70-100 kg./rai or
(13-13-21) or (15-15-15) or (16-16-8) 25 kg./rai

 1.5 Cassava Apply chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 75 kg./rai by dividing into 2
parts. Add the first part at the bottom of the hole before planting and add
the second part 2 months after planting.

 1.6 Corn Apply chemical fertilizer (16-16-8) 25-50 kg./rai or (20-20-0)
50-75 kg./rai (If the soil lacks Potassium or there is Potassium less 
than 70 ppm in soil, add Potassium 10 kg./rai) by dividing it to 2 parts. Add
the first part at the bottom of the hold and add the second part when the
corn's height is 40 cm.

        2. Perennial or tree planting
      In sandy soil area in the highland where there is a good drainage, it is good to plant mango, cashew nut, tamarind, custard apple, the Indian jujube, kapok, margosa. For perennial, it is good to plant eucalyptus,teucaena, and Acacia mangium.

 2.1 Mango Apply chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 500 g./tree with animal manure 20 kg./tree in the first year when Mango starts to grow. The next year, apply chemical fertilizer half of the first year's amount. Add chemical fertilizer when the soil moisture is suitable and add it twice a year, at the coming and the end of rainy season. Add it around the crown radius with animal manure 20-50 kg./tree

 2.2 Cashew nut when cashew nut starts to grow until its age is 2 years, add chemical fertilizer (12-24-12) 300-800 g./tree when it is 3 years, add chemical fertilizer (12-24-12) 1 kg./tree. When it is 4-6 years, add chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 1.5-2 kg./tree. When it is more than 7 years, add chemical fertilizer (13-13-13) 2-3 kg./tree. Add it twice a year at the coming and the end of rainy season. Add it around crown radius with animal manure 20-50 kg./tree when the soil moisture is suitable.

 2.3 Kapok Apply animal manure or compost 12 kg./tree with chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 300 g./tree at the bottom of the hole. When its age is 1-2 years, add chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 0.5 g./tree. When it is 3-4 years, add chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 1 kg./tree and after 5 years, add chemical fertilizer (15-15-15) 2 kg./tree around the crown and divide it to add 2 times.

        3. Grass planting or grassland for keeping animals
      Plain sandy soil area is suitable for grassland. Varieties of grass growing well are Ruzi, Star, Ginny and Bubpel. Scatter mixed Verane-grass in order to increase soil fertity and animal nutrient. From the standy of planting mixed Verano-Ruzi by adding chemical fertilizer 20-40 kg./rai, the result is getting 3 years fresh weight of mixed Verano-Ruzi 6,000-7,000 kg./rai. From soil analysis, the organic matter tends to increase after the research

        4. Growing rice
      Sandy soil in the plain lowland is good for growing rice, especially in rainy season. For an increase in rice production, make the plot smooth and dig the furrow. Reclaim soil fertility by applying organic fertilizer like compost or animal mansure 2-3 ton/rai or green mansure like Sesbania rostrata, crotalarin. Or incorporate stubbles with chemical fertilizer (16-16-8) 20-30 kg./rai. If apply only chemical fertilizer, add it 75-100 kg./rai

 Consideration for applying only Nitrogen in sandy soil
          - Divide it to ad several times.
          - Select fertilizer that melt slowly.
          - Add organic matter like compost, animal manure, crop residue in order to prevent
            nutrient from begin leached and increase the capacity of soil's holding water.
          - Use mulching like rice straw, hush or plastic to cover soil in order to keep soil
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